History of digital cameras

One of the first digital cameras was SONY ProMavica MVC-5000. It has appeared in 1989. The word "MAVICA" stands for Magnetic Video Camera. The camera worked as follows: it recorded images as magnetic impulses on a compact 2-inch still-video floppy disk. The images were captured on the disk by using two CCD (charge-coupled device) chips. One chip stored luminance information and the other separately recorded the chrominance information. This camera provided a 720,000-pixel image. The images could be stored on the floppy disk either in Frame or Field mode. When Frame was selected, each picture was recorded on two tracks and up to 25 images could be recorded on each disk. When Field was selected, each picture was recorded on only one track, allowing up to 50 images to be recorded. When recorded in the Field mode, images were less detailed as compared to images recorded in the two-track Frame mode. The MVC-5000 was considered to be the leader in image quality during its time.
SONY ProMavica MVC-5000
Another significant model of camera, XapShot was a Hi-band still video camera. The XapShot had a built-in flash, self-timer, and an unusual rechargeable lead acid battery.    Also required was a kit which included one floppy disk, the battery, and computer interface card with software.  The USA version of the XapShot could send a NTSC signal to a TV/VCR for playback and recording of images.  There was also a very basic software utility that worked under System 6/7 for the Mac in conjuction with the Computer Eyes NuBus video capture card that the camera connected to.  Later, a Plug-in shipped that worked with Letraset's ColorStudio and then Adobe Photoshop to capture the images. 
XapShot
DYCAM MODEL 1 (Logitech FotoMan) - 1990.  Dycam Model 1 B&W digicam was the world's first completely digital consumer camera.  It stored 32 compressed images on internal 1MB RAM.  1/3-inch, 376 x 240 pixel CCD at 256 gray levels.  TIFF or PICT 2 format.  8mm fixed-focus lens.  Shutter 1/30 to 1/1000 second.  Built-in flash.  The Dycam worked similarly to the Canon XapShot except that it included the digitizing hardware in the camera itself.  The camera was attached to a PC to transfer images. 
DYCAM MODEL
KODAK DCS 200 - 1992.   The DCS 200 had a built-in hard drive for image recording.  There were five variants of the DCS200: DCS 200 ci (color and integrated hard disk), DCS 200 c (color without internal hard disk), DCS 200 mi (black and white and integrated hard disk), DCS 200 m (black and white without internal hard disk) and the 'Wheelcam' (color by a triple green red and blue exposures).  Resolution with the Kodak DCS 200 Digital camera was 1.54 million pixels, providing four times the resolution of still-video cameras at that time. Kodak's fully digital systems used a Nikon body and optics to capture the image. The image was then transferred to a CCD that converted the image directly into digital information. The CCD in the Kodak DCS camera system only used a small portion of the angle of view compared to conventional cameras; for example, a 28mm lens on the Kodak DCS Digital Camera was equivalent to an 80mm lens on a 35mm camera.  The exposure index (EI) of the DCS camera equated to 50 to 400 IS0 for color images and 100 to 800 IS0 for black-and-white images.
KODAK DCS 200    KODAK DCS 200
DA VINCI - 1993.  Amateur camera with built-in thermal copier.  No image storage capability.  Printed on thermal paper. 
DA VINCI
APPLE QUICK TAKE 100 1994.  The first mass-market color digital camera.  640 x 480 pixel CCD.  Up to eight 640 x 480 resolution images could be stored in internal memory.  Fixed-focus 50mm lens.  Built-in flash. 
APPLE QUICK TAKE
OLYMPUS DELTIS VC-1100 - 1994.  The VC-1100 was the world's first digital camera with built-in transmission capabilities.  Photojournalists and other photographers could connect a modem to the VC-1100 and upload digital photos over cellular and analog phone lines.   The camera, which had a built-in zoom lens and an image-capture resolution of 768 by 576 pixels, stored images on PCMCIA cards.  Its color LCD viewfinder let you preview photos on location.  The VC-1100's transmitter enabled pictures to be sent over phone lines or a cellular network to a second camera or personal computer.  The Deltis transmitted at the rate of one frame every one to six minutes, depending on the picture quality required. 
OLYMPUS DELTIS VC-1100
RICOH RDC-1 - 1995.   The RDC-1 was the first digital camera to offer both still and moving image and sound recording/reproduction.  Its recording capacity on a 24MB PC card was 246 still pictures in standard mode, or 492 in economy mode, or 246 still images in economy mode each with 10 seconds of sound, or 173 still images in standard mode each with 10 seconds of sound, or four video scenes of 5 seconds each with sound, or one hour and forty-five minutes of sound only.  The DM-1 removable 2.5 inch color LCD monitor provided a live viewfinder image.
RICOH RDC-1   RICOH RDC-1
HITACHI MP-EG1, MP-EG1A, MP-EG10 - 1997. World's first digital camera which could output moving pictures to a personal computer in the MPEG format.
HITACHI MP-EG1   HITACHI MP-EG1
SONY Cybershot DSC-MD1 - 1997.   Although the CD1000 (a year 2000 model camera) was Sony's first digicam to use a three-inch CD-R as the recording media, it wasn't Sony's first still image digicam to be marketed using a laser and a small plastic disc to record JPEGs. 
SONY Cybershot DSC-MD1
FUJI In-Printer Camera, Instax Mini Printer, and FinePix PR21 - 1998. Prototype digital camera with built-in printer.  In-Printer Camera and Mini Printer shown at Photokina '98.   The In-Printer Camera stored images on SmartMedia memory cards.  Both the In-Printer Camera and the Instax Mini Printer utilized the Fuji Instax Mini film and produced credit-card sized prints.   An improved version of the In-Printer Camera was marketed in 2000 as as the FinePix PR21 (camera on the right above), world's first digital camera with an integral printer. 
FUJI In-Printer Camera
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